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4 AACAR BULLETIN Vol. IV, No. 2 (Fall, '91)

RISALE-I HÜSEYIN BAYKARA

Central Asians are currently celebrating the 550th birth anniversary of the acclaimed Central Asian poet and statesman Ali Shir Navai (1441-1501). AACAR BULLETIN joins the celebration by reproducing in transliteration the contents of a pamphlet written in Navai's lifetime praising Navai's work. Due to technical difficulties (none of which would have constituted an obstacle, save for the limitations of our budget), the Chaghatay text below cannot contain all of the appropriate diacritics. For the same reasons, at times some superfluous diacritics have also crept in. For those with facility in the original Chaghatay, we trust this would but be a minor irritant.

To our knowledge there is no translation of this work. Reportedly of Uyghur descent, Navai was one of the premier literati and statesman of his time, wrote voluminously and with apparent ease in Chaghatay, a Turkish dialect, and Persian, and concomitantly was the long serving 'prime minister' (perhaps better described as the boon companion) of the Timurid H seyin Baykara (r. 1469-1506) of Herat and Khorasan. Much of his writings remain untranslated.[1] In 1500, zbeks --a newly constituted confederation on the historical pattern of previous Turkish confederations[2]-- of Shibani (a.k.a. Shaybani) Khan entered Transoxiana. Shibani Khan declared the end of the Timurids. Shibani himself fell in battle in 1510, fighting against the Safavids (dynasty r. 1501-1736)[3] of Shah Ismail (r. 1501-1524). Shah Ismail was in return defeated by the Ottoman Sultan Selim I (r. 1512-1520) at Chaldiran, in 1514.[4] Shibani and zbeks also fought Bab r, founder of the "Moghul" empire in India,[5] portions of which events are covered in Baburnama.[6] Bab r sought and received the aid of Shah Ismail and his kizilbash Safavids.


5 AACAR BULLETIN Vol. IV, No. 2 (Fall, '91)

A direct descendant of Timur (d. 1405), Sultan H seyin Baykara (r. 1469-1506), ruled Herat and Khorasan.[7] The politics of the place and period was apparently such that Baykara saw it fit to praise Navai in writing. The occasion must have been after Navai completed his MUHAKEMAT AL-LUGHATEYN, in which the relative merits of Turkish (in its T rki, otherwise known as Chaghatay, dialect spoken in Central Asia) and Persian are discussed.[8] The method of arguments adumbrated in that work can not necessarily hold in today's environment. However, the implications are clear. Navai, as well as Baykara, are making their positions clear: they are on the side of T rki. Earlier, under the patronage of Sultan Mahmud of the Turkish Ghaznavid dynasty,[9] the Persian poet Firdawsi collected the fragments of the old Persian epics and reworked them into his SHAHNAMA.[10] This pamphlet by Baykara was first discovered in a regional library of the Turkish Republic, bound with the works of another medieval author. It appears to be the only known copy.

The facsimile of the Baykara pamphlet and its Latin alphabet transliteration were published in the Turkish Republic by I. Ertaylan, immediately after the Second World War. Compliments of the AACAR BULLETIN, facsimiles of the original of this pamphlet and its Latin alphabet transliteration, have been sent separately to various educational and research institutions in Central Asia. We trust that they will be made available to the rest of Central Asians, as a part of this year long Navai celebration.

NOTES:

1. For the collected works of Navai, see A. S. Levend, ALI SIR NEVAI (Ankara, 1965-68) 4 Vols. T rk Dil Kurumu Yayini. See also ENCYCLOPEDIA ISLAM.


6 AACAR BULLETIN Vol. IV, No. 2 (Fall, '91)

2. See H. B. Paksoy, "Z. V. Togan: The Origins of the Kazaks and the zbeks" presented to the 42nd Annual Meeting of the Association for Asian Studies. (Chicago. April 6, 1990).

3. Roger M. Savory, IRAN UNDER THE SAFAVIDS (Cambridge University Press, 1980).

4. S. J. Shaw & E. K. Shaw, HISTORY OF THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE AND MODERN TURKEY (Cambridge University Press, 1976-1978) Two Vols. Second Printing 1978.

5. For the period, see Lt. Col. Sir Wolseley Haig & Sir Richard Burn (Eds.) THE CAMBRIDGE HISTORY OF INDIA (Cambridge, 1922-1953), Vol III, TURKS AND AFGHANS (Cambridge, 1928). M. G. S. Hodgson, in his THE VENTURE OF ISLAM: CONSCIENCE AND HISTORY IN A WORLD CIVILIZATION (Chicago, 1974), 3 Vols., suggests that the above cited 1928 volume should now be corrected with other readings. See also V. Smith, OXFORD HISTORY OF INDIA (Oxford, 1958).

6. THE BABUR-NAMA IN ENGLISH, (Memoirs of Babur) Anette S. Beveridge, Tr. (London, 1922). It has been reprinted in 1969.

7. W. Barthold, FOUR STUDIES ON THE HISTORY OF CENTRAL ASIA Vol. II, ULUG BEG. (Leiden, 1963).

8. Ali Shir Navai, MUHAKEMAT AL-LUGHATEYN, Robert Devereux (Tr.) (Leiden, 1966).

9. C. E. Bosworth, THE GAZNAVIDS: THEIR EMPIRE IN AFGHANISTAN AND EASTERN IRAN, 994-1040 (Beirut, 1973) (2nd Ed.)


7 AACAR BULLETIN Vol. IV, No. 2 (Fall, '91)

10. Theodor N ldeke, (Tr.) (Bombay, 1930).

RISALE-I H SEYIN BAYKARA

Subhanahu ve ta'ala.

Hamd sena ol padisahlar padisahiga, kim her padisah,
kim andin azimrak m mkin bolmagay, anin seraperde-i
azamet u celali tigresinde kemine geda durur.

Huday ki her sah-i enc m-sipah
Aning dergehide ir r kah-i rah

Callat azamatuhu ve celaluhu ve ammat makramatuhu ve
navaluhu ve d r d-i bi intiha ol risalat tahtgahinin
mesned-nisinige kim her taht-giri, ki meh e-i livasi
koyasdin tkey, anin saye-i alemide sefaathah-i
binevadurur.

Resuli kim r s ld r bar a hayli
Ir r kevn u mekan aning tufeyli

Sallallahu alayhi ve ala alihi ve hulafa'ihi ve
ashabihi. Bu rakamning rakimi ve bu tahrirning
muharriri

S rgen bu varak y zige hame
Bir gam-zede-i siyahname

Al muhta ila rahmatillahi'l-Malik al-gafur, fakir-i
hakir Sultan Huseyn bin Mansur mundak beyan kilur kim,
n Tengri tabaraka ve ta'ala kainatni ademdin v cudga
likturdu ve mahlukatning yokin bar kildu, bari
aferinisdin maksud insan irdi, kim andin haber bir r.
Ba v cud ol, kim beni Ademni cemi'i mahlukatga m kerrem


8 AACAR BULLETIN Vol. IV, No. 2 (Fall, '91)

kildi, kim mundin artuk mertebe bola almas. Ve mundin
biyik r tbeni akil baver likmas; velikin bu nimet
s krin eda kilganda vade kildi, kim inayetni taze ve
nimet bi-endaze kilgay, kim bu maniga muhbir durur.
Eger i aning nimetlerining s kri edasida kisining her
ser-i muy bir til ve alardin her til hejd m ming senaga
kayil bolsa, andak kim sezavar durur. S kr-i nimet
becay kilt rmek m mkin irmes velikin her kisi z hod
haliga s kr-i nimet eda kilmay hem bolmas.

Nazim:

Aning s krin ayturda bolma mel l
zi bils n er kilsa red ya kabul
Nikim Tengri emr etti me'mursin
Veli evvelce m mkin turur sa'y kil
Ki huy eylegey Tengri S krige til

Emma ger i halayikga s kr vacib turur velikin n ayet-
i kerime sabit turur. Mundin malum bolur, kim hedaya ve
ni'am tagi m tefavit bolgay. Si'ir:

Hak nuri bile eger i r sen-d r cem
Hursid bile velik teng bolmadi sem

Bes ka an, kim insanning hilkati meratibide tafav t
zahir ve Hak ta'alaning ni'met ve ihsanida dagi her
kisige z makduriga g re in'am kilgan cihetdin tefav d
araga kirdi. Elbette kirek, kim s kr edasida tagi
tefav t bolgay.

Siir:

Gedaga s kr isi bolgay gedaca
Velikin padisaha padisaca


9 AACAR BULLETIN Vol. IV, No. 2 (Fall, '91)

Pers yakin, boldi kim padisahlar, kim alarni Hak Ta'ala
alem m lkide tac-bahs u taht-nisin kildi, belki
zillullah-i fil'l-arzayn itti, h k mleri alem ilige
revan ve dehr ili kulluklarida natuvan. Beyt:

Kaslarida halk isi efkendelik
Emirleriga il itib bendelik

Mukarrer turur, kim bu cemaatga s kr-i nimet edasi
efzunrak ve s kr-g zarlik tili uzunrak kirek bolgay ve
bu salatin arasida tagi ba'zidan ba'ziga tevaf t bar.
Nidin, kim Hayy-i Kadir ve padisah-i bi vezirning
inayeti bar aga yeksan bolmadi. Ve ting-dest birmedi.
Ol cema'atdin kim alarga s kr-i ni'met baridin k prek
vacib-turur. Hayalga andak kil r, kim biri bu fakir-i
natuvan ve bu sikeste-i bisaman turur, kim eger y z
ming yil mr tapib y z ming til bile s kr-g zarlik
kilsam, aning in'amining y z mingidin birige eda-yi
s kr kila almagaymin. Ni e tagi bu nev bolsa, hatir
tiler, kim ol kerem u inayet ve ol eltaf-i
binihayetning k ridin azi beyanga kilgey; belki mingdin
biri kalem tili bile varak y zige bitilgeni ol c mledin
biri bu, kim eger i ba'zi selatinga bu sikeste
bendesidin k prek memleket ve cah ve hezayin ve sipah
birdi; velikin alarning k nglige bu cihetdin gurur yol
tapdi ve s kr g zarlik iside f tur y zlendi. Bu fakirge
himmeti nasib kildi, kim y z alarga birgence sevket ve
milk k ngl mni magrur kila almas ve ubudiyyetim
esbabiga kkusur salmas. Eger alarding ba'zinin itimadi
aning lutf u keremiga boldi ve eger alardin ba'zini
dena'et-i neseb cihetidin mat'un kildi. Emma bu
za'ifning yitti ve belki yitmis ataga a aba u ecdadimin
saltanat ve belki vilayetga m serref ve makrun itti.
Eger basidin saltanat bheti ve gururidin fakrul fena
ehliga istigna ve ser b lendlig yitk rdi. Bu natuvandin
ol rafi'ussan g ruhga hakisarlik bile niyazmendlik
yitk rdi. Beyt:


10 AACAR BULLETIN Vol. IV, No. 2 (Fall, '91)

Ger alem ilige sah kildi
Fakr ehliga haki rah kildi.

Ve bazi hem bolgay kim, alarni hilye-i z hd u ta'at
araste ve ziver-i ilm u belagat bile piraste kilib
turur. Ve likin bi sikestening hatiriga bu tarikni
m stahsen ve dilpezir ve ol azizlerni makbul u binazir
k rk zdi ve alar ruhiga mindin fatiha bile istimdad ve
ol ruhaniyyetlerdin mining isimge k p f tuh k sad
tig rdi ve ba'zining zamanida ihtiyarlik evlad-i
barif'at ve itibarlik erkan-i devletdin fukara ve
mesakinge ve ri'aya-yi mesakkat ayinga zulm-i bihad ve
te'addi-i bi'aded boldi. Bu ftadening asrida fukara u
mesakin bu gamlardin sad ve ri'aya-yi namurad bu
kayidlardin azad boldi. Ve ba'zinin zamanida sud r-i
zulm-pise ve nuvvab-i haric-endise evkafni bozdilar ve
aning hasili bile meclis-i ays u tarab yasab neva-yi
fisk u f cur t zdiler. Bu miskin evkafga muta'ayyin
kilgalar bari harablarni ma'mur ve istihkak ehlin
saduman u mesrur kildilar. Ve alar zamanida evkaf
bozulgan cihedtin talebe mgm m ve m derris mahrum
bolsa hala s k r, kim darussaltana'da tahmina y z
havza-i ders bolgay, kim faza'yil-i diniyye ve ulum-i
yakiniyye ukar ve Rum aksasidin in serhaddiga digince
demi Islam biladidin kabil talibler bu avaze ve
m zakere-i biendazeni isidib, gurbet masakkatin ihtiyar
kilib bu tahtgaha y zlen rler. Tagi Tengri inayetidin
evkaf hasili bar aning harc mukabelesiga yiter ve
r zgarlari feragat bile ter ve bu mezk r bolgan
m derrisliga yakin hanikah bolgay, kim her kaysida
ihtiyac ehli bigayet ve istihkak hayli binihayet
horsend u behrmend bolurlar. Ve eger ol zamanlar
vakrak i havfidin tacir-i mahacir ve kutta ul-tahrik
bimidin sayir guraba ve m safir meskendin bir maksadga
ve vatandin bir mabedga yitmekde k p su det ve bihad
uk bet k rerler irdi. Bu zamanda siyaset sarsari ol


11 AACAR BULLETIN Vol. IV, No. 2 (Fall, '91)

mahz l kavning v cudi has u hasakin memalik destidin
it r b turur; belki duzeh atesgedesiga tig r b turur.
Ve m safirga her menzilde bir ribat-i rh nihad belki
emniyyet i n bir kal'a-i sipihr-b nyad savuklarda reh
neverdlerga andin vaye ve isigda cihan-gerdlerga andin
saya saya ve pehahdin baska tagi her dilhan anda hasil
ve tilegen nime asanlik bile vasil ve her kaysida ehl-i
tesad def'i ve kutta ul-tarik men'i n sipahidin
fevci ve m te'ayyen yasaglikdin g ruhi m temekkin ve
eger ba'zinin vaktida mesacidisikleri medaris ve cemaat
ehli cemaat ilkide mahbus irdi. Bu fakir zamanida
muhasibler fikri mesacid hisabiga yetismes ve bav cud
bu cemaat ehli anda sigismas; her kaysiga anca revnak
ve ihtiram ki ka'be-i mu'azzamada Mescid-i Haram ve
eger ba'zi eyyamda ser ahkamiga ve Islam ehl-i bid'at
hayliga zir-dest irken bolsa, bu eyyamda seri'at-i i
Nebevi ve ahkam i Mustafavi bazusi andak kavi turur kim
yakind r, kim ihtisab ehli nci felekde Z hre
m gannie ni ura urgaylar ve berbat u engini yirge urub
sindurgaylar. Yine isler hem k pd r, kim fasili s zge
mucib-i tatvil ve tahriri ba'is-i kal-u kil bolur. Bu
nev umurdin baska ve bu tavr halatdin ayru tagi Hak
subhanahu ve tea'la bu nahif bendesining saltanati
zamanida bir ni e kisige cilye-i z hur birib-turur ve
bu fakir mecliside alardin tesrif-i h zur erzani
tutubdur kim, alarning v cudidin bu zaman cemi ezminega
racih turur. Ve bu devran bar a devirlerdin m mtaz, ki
bular tagi mucib i k p eday-i s kr turur, ki andin
natika tili lal ve kalem tili sikeste-mekal durur. Ve
ol c mlening alem ve elzafi, fezatil deryasining d rr-i
paki ve velayet eflakining hursid-i tabnaki nazm
cevahirining sahib-i intizami, hazret-i sayh al-Islam
Mevlana Abdurrahman Cami sallahu'llahu ve ibka turur,
kim ta felek-i kadimi nihad savabit ve seyyardin y z
ming k z bile alem ehlige nazir turur. K zige andak
nadir hayal kilmemis ve ta mihr-i cihan-numa belki
hursid-i sipihr peyma cihan devriga sayir durur;


12 AACAR BULLETIN Vol. IV, No. 2 (Fall, '91)

pertevi hergiz anirg tig adim al-misal stige t smemis;
cevahir-i bazmidin cihan sadeli tola d rr-i semin ve
leali nesridin eflak atlasiga zib u tezyin, tesanifi
cemi-i ulumda bihad ve her tasnifde bezayin-i ma'ani
bi'aded. Siir:

u mizan-i tab'i bolub genc-senc
Anga bir terazu kilib Penc-Gen
Ki hayran kalib nazm kilgan agi
Anga yok ki Husrev Nizami tagi

Lutf-amiz gazelleri sur-engiz ve sur-engiz beytleri
lutf-amiz, kim k p yillar Hak subhanahu ve ta'ala
alarning saye-i irsadin berdevam ve bu devlet eyyamiga
anin tik sahib-i devletni m stedam tutsun. Ve yine hem
nazm ehlidin hos-guyluk evcining s heyli bolur dik
kisiler bar. Ve letafet-i nazm-i dastan ve metanet-i
terkib i beyanida alem ili alarning tufeyli bolur dik
felek mevcud turur, kim burun alar dik felek cilve
birgen irmes. Ve hala tagi hi yirde kimse alarning
nisan birmes. Ve Herat sanaha 'ilahu ani 'lafat ve
nevahi side evvelce hatirga kil r ve evvelce sadik al-
kavi ve sahib-vuk f il arzga tig r rlerse bir migge
yakin kisi, kim alarning isi ma'ani d rrlerin nazm
silkige tartmak bolgay ve dikkat g herlerige vezn
libasi zib u zinetin birmek bolgay, kim hic devirde
bular dik ilning melikdin edna ve hic de nuridin yiri
yok irken durur. Ve bu ismi mezkur bolganlar ve evsali
mest r bolganlar farisi nazm enc mni bezm t zgen ve
farisi-g yluk bahriga asinalik k rk zkenler durur. Ve
likin ma'ani ebkariga bu k nge digince hi kisi t rkane
libas kiyd rmegen ve ol nazeninlernibu ziba hil'at bile
cilve-i Z hurge kit rmegen turur ve bu m sk-bu ra'nalar
tab nihan-haneside uryanlikdin mahcub kalgan durur. Ta
bu ferhunde-zaman ve bu huceste-devran, kim bu
natuvanning bari il k n mdin ve 'cavari kisi karamdin
kulluk silkidin k k ltaslik payesiga yitgen ve


13 AACAR BULLETIN Vol. IV, No. 2 (Fall, '91)

m lazemet tarikidin musahabet sermayesin eyitgen harem
keb teri dik perde-saray halvetide mahrem ve surahi
bati dik sebistan suhbetide hemdem hak s z edasida
delir ya'ni Mir Ali Sir aslaha 'lahu sanahu, kim
tehallusi Nevay 'ga meshur durur ve es'arida bu
tehallus mestur T rk tilining lgen cesediga Mesih
enfasi bile ruh ki rdi. Ve ol ruh tapkanlarga t rki
ayin elfaz tar u pudidin tokulgan h lle ve harir
kiyd rdi ve s z g listanida nev-bahar tab'idin revanasa
yaginlar bile rengarenk g ller a ti ve nazm deryasiga
sehab-i fikretidin ruh-perver katreler bile g nag n
d rrler sa ti. Her sinif si'r meydaniga, kim tekav r
s rdi, ol kisverni tig i zeban bile z hayta-i
tasarrufiga kiy -virdi. Aning nazmi vasfida til kasir
ve beyan aciz turur. Hatirga zining mesnevileridin
nice beyt kil r, kim bu aytila-durgan ma'nide nazmi
kilib turur ve ol budur. Mesnevi:

Min ol min, ki ta T rk-i bi-dadidur
bu til birle ta nazm b nyadidur
felek k rmedi min kimi nadiri
Nizami kimi nazm ara kadiri
ni nazmi dir irsem mini derd-nak
ki her lafzi bolgay anin d rr-i pak
Huda yitk r r anca s r'at manga
ki bolmas birige firsat manga
bu meydanda Firdevsi ol g rd ir r
ki ger kilse R stem cevabin bir r
rakam kildi ferhunde Sehname-i
ki sindi cevabida her hame-i
m sellem turur g yya bu isi
ki ma'razga kilmey turur her kisi
didi z tili birle ol kan-i gen
ki si sal burdam be-Sehname renc
ani dirge bolsa ka an ragbetim
ir r an a Hak lutfidin kuvvetim
ki ger ni e tab bolsa kamil-suray


14 AACAR BULLETIN Vol. IV, No. 2 (Fall, '91)

bitilgeymin otuz yilin otuz ay
eger has-i ma'ni ger iham ir r
anin k nde y z beyti helvam ir r
ni Sehname kim hamsega ursam il
anin ni esi sari yitk rsem il
midim bu kim eyleben feth-i bab
kolum birgey ol ni ege tagi tab
otuz yil, ki ani Nizami dimis,
kasda ir r iki yillik is
ka an ani dir bezmini t zgemin
dimekni halayikga k rk zgemin

Ol vakt ki bu ebyat aning tab'idin bas urub irdi, il
kasida sa'irane laf ve madihane g zal k r n r irdi. Ve
al-hak n bu humayun firsatda ve bu ruz-efzun devletde
hamse-i pen esiga ilig urdu ve aning itmamiga cidd
kilt rdi. Eger i Seyh Nizami nazm ehlinin ustadi-dur,
Azer hamsesin meshur budur, kim otuz yilda tekmil birib
turur. Ve Mir Hosrev kim hamse ebyati 'adeddin otuz
mingdin on sekiz mingge ihtisar kilib turur ve s hreti
mundak durur kim, alti yitti yilda t ketib turur. Bu
fesahat meydanining safderi ve belagat pisesining
gazanferi ba-v cud ol, kim k p efsanelerde dil-pezir
tefsirler buyurdi ve tab-pesend islahlar kildi.
B nyadining ibtidasindin sivadining intihasiga a hemana
iki yildin tmedi. Ve aytilgan evkat bisabga kirse,
dise bolgay, kim alti ayga yitmedi, kim aning
efsaneleri renginligin ve ebyati sihr-ayinligin ve
terakibi metanenin ve ma'anisi letafetin mutala'a
kilgan kisi bilgey ve m lahaza kilgan kisi fehm kilgay
yok, kim mesnevi slubida bil, kim her sinif nazm, kim
Arab f sahasi ve Acem b lagasi tezyin birib dururlar ve
tedyin kilib tururlar. Bu hem bercaga hame s r b durur
ve ta'arruz yitk r b turur, kim serhi divanining
fihristide mezk r ve mestur turur. Ni divan Allah Allah
cengi, kim safi elfazdin tola g her bolgay ve sipihr
evraki, kim pak ma'anidin memlu hasr bolgay.


15 AACAR BULLETIN Vol. IV, No. 2 (Fall, '91)

Dime divan, gam u derd ehliga afet di ani
K ymek u su'le-i gam birle kiyamet di ani

Kaysi beyti, kim isk ehli camga ot urmas ve kaysi
mazmuni, kim hicran hayli cismin k nd rmes, belki k lin
k kge savirmas. Kaysi misra'i, kim firak ciger hunining
bagri kanin tamizmas. Ve kaysi lafzi, kim hicran
dermandesi eski seli bile sabr u sekib hamsin akimas.
Nazm iklimide kaysi birk kurganga k kilt rdi, kim
isigi aning y zige a ilmadi ve kaysi azim kisverga tab
erigi bileterk-taz saldi, kim feth kilmadi. Bu k n
nazm erkanining rub-i meskunida kahramanol turur ve bu
memalik fethiga sahib kiran ani diseler bolur. Si'ir:

r r s z milkining kisversitani
kayu kisversitan hosrev nisani
dime hosrev nisan kim kahramani
ir r ger in diseng sahib-kirani

Bu yanglig garayib asar ve bedayi si'arning huruci bu
evletde Zuhuri bu saltanatda bolgan, kim Hak subhanahu
ve ta'ala ani bu dergah-i felak-misal kullugining arifi
ve bu zat i melek-hisal medahlarining nazimi kaldi. Hem
mucib k p s kr turur. Ruba'iyye:

ya Rab, koyu s kringi eda kilgaymin!
ni til bile ani ibtida kilgaymin!
y z canim eger bolsa fida kilgaymin
disem ki eda boldi hata kilgaymin
Ya Rab, mini kullugungga kadir eyle!
ger yitse bela derd sabir eyle;
yadingga tagi i imni zakir eyle

In'amingga hem tilimni zakir eyle. Tamma bi'l-hayr tam
sud Risale-i Sultan H seyn Mirzay Baykara. Al-hakir
fakir Alivirdi ibn (___?) Kuli.



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